Monday, April 8, 2013

April 8, 2013 Lesson: Shakespeare and the English Language

Essential Question: Who was William Shakespeare, and what is his importance?

Check as you complete:

I. ____Do Now: Anticipation Guide ( 7 minutes ) (What information do you anticipate will be shared in the following essay entitled “Shakespeare and the English Language”?): 
Answer the following questions before you read the following essay about the influences of William Shakespeare on the language that we speak today?

Directions: Answer the following by writing “T” for True or “F” for False next to the number of questions 1-10 on a separate piece of paper. With some questions, add a “text example” of why the statement is true or false.

  1. An early influence on modern English was French. T or F
  2. The Norman Conquest of England was important to the development of the language that we speak today. T or F
  3. English kings didn’t speak English officially until the 15th century (1400s)( FYI Romeo and Juliet takes place in the 1300s in Verona, Italy). T or F
  4. In the 15th century, the English that was spoken within a 50 mile radius might be so different that neighbors had a hard time understanding each other. T or F
  5. The first English dictionary didn’t appear until the 17th century. T or F
  6. Shakespeare’s name may not be Shakespeare. T or F  Text Example: _________.
  7. Shakespeare himself signed his name in multiple ways. T or F
  8. Shakespeare is responsible for inventing nearly 2000 English words that we use to this day. T or F
  9. Shakespeare is responsible for inventing some very popular idioms/phrases in the English language that we use to this day. T or F Text Example:_______________.
  10. Shakespeare might be most influential single individual contribution to the English language. T or F

II. ____Read: Shakespeare and the English Language (10 minutes)

      Every author wants to make sure that all the facts in the book are correct and that all the words are spelled right. but when writing a book about Shakespeare, spelling is not a simple matter. The reason why makes an interesting story in itself.

      In the year 1066, the Normans came over from France and conquered England. For over three hundred years, French was the court language, and English was spoken only by peasants. It wasn’t until 1415 that the kings of England began speaking English again, and by then the language had greatly changed. The French spoken by the nobility had come to be more like English, and the English of the common people was full of French words.

      People in those days rarely traveled. They spent their whole lives in the same village where their parents and grandparents had lived. And so each region developed its own way of speaking. William Caxton wrote in 1490 about some sailors from London who were sailing down the Thames River. Fifty miles from London, they came ashore to buy food. They particularly wanted some eggs, which they called “eggys.” The farmer’s wife, who couldn’t understand what they were asking for, assumed they were speaking French. In her village, eggs were “eyren.”

      Most people couldn’t read or write, and those who could simply spelled words the way they pronounced them. If people who lived only fifty miles apart had trouble understanding one another, imagine how many different ways there were of saying---and spelling---even the most common words! There was no regular system of spelling or punctuation, and neither the people of England nor the printers of books seemed to think it was important how words were spelled. On the title page of the first English dictionary, A Table Alphabeticall [sic] of Hard Words by Robert Cawdrey, published in 1604, the word words was spelled two different ways. It was another fifty years before some kind of standard English spelling was established.

      People were not even consistent in the way they spelled their own or other people’s names. Was Will Kempe’s name spelled “Kempe” or “Kemp”? The answer is both. Shakespeare’s name has been spelled more than eighty different ways, including “Shagspeare,” “Shakspere,” and even “Shakestaffe.” There are six documents signed by Shakespeare, and he spells his name differently in each one. In his will, he spells it two different ways---”Shakspere” in one place and “Shakespeare” in another. He never signed it “Shakespeare,” but over the years, that spelling has been agreed upon, aqnd so it is spelled today.

      As there weren’t dictionaries and grammar books to keep the language in any particular form, it grew and changed rapidly. People were constantly making up new words---between ten and twelve thousand of them in the years between 1500 and 1650. Shakespeare was a great inventor of words. Majestic, countless, hint, hurry, reliance, leapfrog, lonely, gust, excellent, and gloomy are only a few of the nearly two thousand words he created.

      Shakespeare also found new and vivid ways of describing things. Many of his phrases are so commonly used today that people have no idea they came from his pen. If you have said you were “tongue-tied” or lived in a “fool’s paradise”; if you refused to “budge an inch, “ said that you had “seen better days,” or insisted on “fair play”; if you “played fast and loose” or were stung with “green-eyed jealousy”; if you “danced attendance” on your “lord and master” or “suspected foul play” because someone was “as dead as a doornail”; if even your “own flesh and blood” set your teeth on edge,” and you planned to “lie low” until “the crack of doom”; if “the game is up” and, “without rhyme or reason” and “at one fell swoop,” you decide to “give the devil his due”; if you call someone an “eyesore” or a “laughing stock,” and you decide to “bid him good riddance” and “send him packing”; if you say you have “slept not one wink, “led a charmed life,” or “laughed yourself into stitches”, if you feel that it’s “high time” that “the truth were known,” and it’s a “foregone conclusion” that something has “melted into thin air”; then “the long and the short of it” is, “as good luck would have it” and “the truth will out”---you have quoted Shakespeare!   

From the “Postscript” of Bard of Avon; The Story of William Shakespeare, by Diane Stanley and Peter Vennema. New York: Morrow Junior Books, 1992.

III.____Complete Springboard Activity 4.4 & 4.5 (pages 262-265)( 33 minutes); the whole group should report their progress to the teacher every 11 minutes ).

  • In order to complete this you will need to borrow one of the copies of Romeo and Juliet in front of the class. 

  • You will read Act 1, Scene 1.
  • Make sure you put the books back where you got them from before the end of class.
  • Make sure that you answer  “Essential Question 2” at the bottom of page 263.
  • On page 265, Complete number “5” in pairs.

Homework: Complete the following questions about Chapters 9 and 10 in  Animal Farm. Submit your answers to these questions by clicking the “Comment” hot link at the end of the blog entry for today, April 8, 2013 on the class blog site online: If you have difficulties doing this, turn in a hard copy of your answers on paper tomorrow.

  1. What do the animals have to rebuild?

  1. What else are the animals faced with besides this rebuilding project? 

  1. While the majority of animals are faced a list of problems, the pigs are up to what?

  1. What has become of Moses?

  1. What becomes of Boxer? How is Boxer’s end the work of the pigs? 

  1. What do the other animals understand about what becomes of Boxer?

  1. How do the pigs immediately benefit from Boxer’s loss? 

  1. How does the story come full-circle with the pigs buying whiskey?

  1. What is the significance of the pigs training the sheep to say, “ Four legs good, two legs better”?

  1. What is the significance of the line at the end of the novel: "All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others" ?

See you tomorrow! 


  1. 1) The animals have to rebuild a windmill because "Snowball broke it".

    2) They are faced with starvation.

    3) The pigs are up to drinking, playing cards, and "supervising".

    4) Moses wasn't seen for years, and came back to the farm, still speaking of Sugarcandy Mountain. Nothing major happened to him and he was granted a small amount of beer each day.

    5) Boxer collapses while overworking himself. The pigs sent him to a glue factory, so they ultimately killed him.

    6) The other animals think that he went to the veteranarian's and that he died while Napoleon was paying for everything, no matter the cost.

    7) The pigs benefit from Boxer's loss because they get enough money to buy another case of whiskey.

    8) The story comes full-circle when the pigs buy whiskey because that's when the last of the original rules of Animalism were altered to benefit the pigs and not the other animals.

    9) The significance of the sheep being taught to sing "four legs good, two legs better" was so that the pigs could walk around on their hind legs and be superior to the others because now the pigs can hold things, like whips.

    10) The significance of the line is to portray that the normal farm animals were all equal, but the pigs were superior to them, and more equal. The pigs also "deserve" more because they are the more intelligent of the animals so they can tell them what to do better.

  2. 1) The animals have to reconstruct the windmill because Snowball supposedly broke it.

    2) The animals are faced with starvation.

    3) The pigs love to play card games, drink, and "supervise."

    4) Moses came back from a long trip and yet he was speaking of Sugarcandy mountain. He was given a small share of beer each day after his return.

    5) Boxer overworks himself and eventually collapses in the dirt. So, the pigs sent Boxer to a glue factory.

    6) The other animals believe that Boxer went to the vets for a check up and that he died while Napolean was paying for everything.

    7) The pigs benefit from Boxer's death by getting enough money to buy another case of whiskey.

    8) The story went full-circle when the pigs buy whiskey because the rules of animalism were changed for the pigs benefits and not the other animals.

    9) The signifigance of the sheep singing "four legs good, two legs better" was so the pigs could be superior by walking on their hind legs and hold things batter, like.....whips or barrels.

    10) The signifigance of the line is to show that all animals were equal, but the pigs were showing they were superior and more equal than the rest. The pigs are intelligent and "Deserve" more.

  3. 1.) The pigs have to rebuild the Windmill.
    2.) The animals are faced with starvation.
    3.) The pigs take extra rations of food, drink alcohol, they change the amendments so they can do what they want, and they don't do work.
    4.) Moses was gone for a few years and then randomly returned. He Spoke of SugarCandy Mountain and did no work, but still got beer everyday.
    5.) Boxer overworks himself and falls, putting himself into stall rest for a few days. He get's sent to a glue factory, where he dies. The pigs are the ones that sent him there, so they are responsible for his death.
    6.) Benjamin reads the side of the cart that is taking Boxer and realizes that he is being slaughtered and taken to a glue factory. Squealer tells them that it was the vet and they just hadn't repainted the cart yet. He tells them he died at the vet.
    7.) The pigs get a load of whiskey shipped in from the money they got from the glue factory.
    8.)The story comes full circle when the pigs buy whiskey because the rules of animalism are changed for the pigs benefits, not for everyone else.
    9.) The significance of the sheep saying "Four legs good, two legs better," was so the pigs could walk around on there hind legs and carry things like whips.
    10.) The significance of this line is that the farm animals are equal, but the pigs are superior to them, or more equal. The pigs "deserve" more.

  4. 1.) The pigs have to rebuild the windmill.
    2.) The animals are faced with starvation.
    3.) The pigs begin to change amendments and take extra ration of food, as well as alcohol consumption, and they do no work.
    4.) Moses returned to the farm still talking about sugarcandy mountain. He was granted small portions of beer everyday.
    5.) Boxer collapses due to being overworked. The pigs then send him to a glue factory, murdering him.
    6.) The animals were led to believe boxer was being sent to a vet, where he ultimately died.
    7.) Due to boxers death the pigs are able to ship in a load of whiskey.
    8.) With the pigs buying whiskey, the story comes to full circle due to the rules of animalism being altered for the pigs benefit and nobody elses.
    9.) The significance of the sheep saying, "Four legs good, two legs better" was so that pigs would be able to walk on two legs to hold things better, such as whips.
    10.) The significance of that line is to say that all of the animals are equal, but the pigs simply deserve more because they are better.

  5. 1~ The animals on the farm have to rebuild the windmill AGAIN!
    2~ The animals on the farm are faced with starvation.
    3~ While the animals are faced with starvation and exhaustion the pigs are living comfortable living in the farmhouse, drinking alcohol, and purposefully altering the seven amendments in their favor.
    4~ After years had passed, Moses returned to the farm and did what he used to do, talk about Sugarcandy Mountain and not do any work.
    5~ Boxer becomes fatigued and falls while working. The pigs then call for a "Vet" but evidently Boxer is taken to a slaughter house/glue factory where he meets his end.
    6~ The animals on the farm had seen Boxer being taken away in a van that had been owned by a slaughter house/glue factory. The pigs assured them that the van was now owned by a Veterinarian and he had ended up dying their.
    7~ After Boxer had died at the "Vet", the pigs had received some extra money and had used it to purchase a crate of Whiskey.
    8~ After the pigs had purchased Whiskey, which had been a forbidden action in the amendments, they changed the amendment so that they could have Whiskey just not to an excess. This shows that the pigs are only trying to better themselves.
    9~ The significance of the pigs training the sheep to say, "Four legs good, two legs better" was so that they could walk on their hand legs to show superiority over the other animals. This also made it easier for the pigs to wield whips which let the animals know that they were in control.
    10~ The significance of that line was to show that every animal on the farm was equal, but the pigs. The pigs felt that since they were smarter and mentally "worked" harder that they deserved more than the others.

  6. 1. Once again the animals have to rebuild the windmill.

    2. Besides with the horrible fact of rebuilding the animals are faced with starvation.

    3. The pigs are supposed to be the leaders and be supervising but they are drinking, taking the food, and fixing the amendments the way they want.

    4. Moses has not changed much because he still talks of Sugarcandy Mountain.

    5. Boxer is known to work very hard but he works to hard he collapses and then the mean pigs send him to a glue factory where he meets his end.

    6. The animals were tricked into thinking that Boxer was sent to a vet and he died there, but that was a lie.

    7. The pigs benefit because now they have enough money to buy whiskey.

    8. This came into full circle because the pigs changed the amendments so they can have whiskey "legally" which only benefits them and not the other animals. They are just taking advantage of their power and are not true leaders.

    9. This new saying "four legs good, two legs better" is so the pigs can walk on two legs to show they are the leaders and this helps them hold whips showing they dominate.

    10. The significance of this line is to say that all the other animals are equal but the pigs. The pigs think they are so much greater because they are smarter than all the others, but yet they are just cruel and mean and not good leaders.

  7. 1. they rebuild the windmill

    2. they have to go through starvation

    3. the other animals are starving while the pigs are drinking, playing card games, and "supervising".

    4.Moses comes back without a change in his personality and he is still talking about sugarcandy mountain.

    5. Boxer gets a overworked and sent to a glue factory by the pigs where he gets murdered.

    6. the other animals think he was sent to the vet where he freakesly died.

    7. They get money to buy more whiskey.

    8. the story goes in full-circle when the pigs alter the rules for their own benefit.

    9. the pigs taught the sheep to use four legs so they would not be like the humans, but know the pigs are now like the humans.

    10. they are talking about the pigs are more significant than the other animals. from the beginning of the book they explained that the pigs are smarter.

  8. Noah Robidoux
    1. The windmill is what the animals have to rebuild.
    2. The animals have to deal with hunger and establishing food sources and totalitarian leader(s).
    3. They are being selfish and eating very well.
    4. Moses eventually comes back to the farm after the fight that had demolsihed the windmill, talking about Sugarcandy Mountain.
    5. Boxer dies of being sent to a knacker, someone who slaughters animals unfit to work anymore but cannot be consumed. The pigs have to convince the other animals that they didn't get rid of Boxer for their own gain, and they have to rethink ways of finishing labor that Boxor could have completed.
    6. They understand that he died while being treated for his wounds.
    7. The pigs buy a case of whisky with the money they get for Boxer.
    8. Other animals find out and spread the word.
    9. The significance is that the very first principals that the animals were raised on were that two legs were evil, and four legs were good.
    10. The significance is that it officially signals the total communist revolution to be finished, and a corrupted power leads the farm from there on out.

  9. 1. They have to rebuild the windmill.

    2. They are faced with food shortages, farm amendment changes, and totalitarian leaders.

    3. They are off drinking, “overseeing the work” or “supervising”, and playing cards.

    4. Moses comes back after a while and still spreads the roomers of Sugarcandy mountain. He still didn’t work and is given a ration of a pint of beer a day.

    5. Boxer gets very hurt when moving rocks. The pigs say that he is going to the vet, but he is actually
    taken to a slaughter house / glue factory where he is killed.

    6. They believed the truth at first, but then Squealer convinced them of other false things.

    7. The were given money for Boxer and they bought a crate of alcohol with it.

    8.The story becomes full circle when they change the amendment to make it okay for the pigs themselves to drink alcohol.

    9.Before the sheep were saying, “Four legs good, too legs bad”. When the pigs started walking on two legs, they trained the sheep to say that so it fit in to what the pigs were doing and that it was okay.

    10. The significance of the line is very sly and fake, because it really means that no one is equal. The pigs are on top and everyone falls below them.